Harking back to our romanticized notions of the veritable Spanish Armada and the early transatlantic trade routes of the 16th century, the Galleon serves as the quintessential template of the Spanish naval might. These multi-decked ships, with their three masts and fore-and-aft rig, were designed as warships with both cargo and troop-carrying capacity. And while their Mediterranean origins are undeniable, galleons were also developed by northern European powers of the time, thereby signifying the effectiveness of the vessel design and its armed capability. So without further ado, let us take a gander at ten things you should know about the history and evolution of the galleon – the exemplary warship of the 16th-17th century.
1) The Development of the Galleon –
According to historian Angus Konstam, the early 16th century was a period of innovation for ship designs, with the adoption of better sailing rigs and onboard artillery systems. By this time, the caravel was the highly-maneuverable sailing ship used for exploration, while larger carrack (or the Mediterranean equivalent – the nao, with slightly different features), based on the design of cogs, appeared as the dominant warship and merchant’s vessel for many a European navy. To that end, one hypothesis put forth in the academic circles relates to how the galleon was based on the design of caravels, possibly because of its ‘sleeker’ form-factor. However, the galleon also shared some design features with the nao, given its sturdier construction and stronger sailing rig.
In essence, it can be surmised that the galleon design was inspired by the combination of both the maneuverability of caravels and the hefty nature of carracks, bolstered by the millennia-old tradition of shipbuilding along the Mediterranean coast. In that regard, during the Battle of Preveza in circa 1538 AD, a Venetian ship, described as a galleon, was said to have countered multiple Turkish galleys – thereby suggesting how the vessel was well-armed and yet maneuverable.
Simply put, while the earlier carracks and naos were used as ‘multirole’ cumbersome warships and merchant vessels, the galleon was possibly developed as a specialized marine craft with a keel-up design dedicated primarily to naval battles and encounters (but modified over time with cargo-carrying capacity – discussed later in the article).
2) The First Galleons of the 16th Century –
In the 1520s, the Portuguese used patrol vessels in the Indian Ocean known as galleones, while by the 1530s, the French referred to the Spanish warships as a galeons. Interestingly enough, the Spaniards themselves used the term galeón (meaning – ‘armed merchant ship’) for one of their vessels that were designed to fight the Barbary pirates in circa 1517 AD. By the 1540s, such Spanish galleons were built as dedicated warships (with some cargo carrying capacity) that were typically smaller than naos. These well-armed vessels relied on sails while being also accommodated with secondary oars (or sweeps) until the latter mechanism was totally relegated by the 1560s.
During the time of King Philip II’s reign (1556-98), the Spanish galleon increased in size and capacity. For example, while the earlier galleons had capacities for 120 toneladas (Spanish tons), the post-1560 galleons tended to cross thresholds of 330 toneladas. These ships were also progressively used as escort vessels (in place of the ponderous naos) for the naval convoys that traveled between Spain and the Americas. This trend of adopting larger sizes for Atlantic convoys explains the (later) removal of oar-based systems from the vessels since sweeps mostly came in handy in coastal areas and calm seas, not the high seas.
It should also be noted that the Spanish may have used the term galleon (or galeón) for most types of warships in their navy, while the Portuguese possibly used it to denote a particular type of warship. Quite intriguingly, even the English designed their own version of a galleon (or a vessel that was somewhat visually akin to a galleon) in 1545 AD known as the gallyon, but the craft was smaller in size with sweeps.
3) The Royal Galleon –
By the 1570s, the size of the Spanish galleon was increased even further to average capacities of around 500 tons. And by 1588 AD, when the Spanish Armada arguably was at its peak, the crown boasted three humongous 1,000-ton galleons accompanied by eight 800 ton galleons and eight 600 ton galleons. Such massive sizes were complemented by graceful designs, with a sharper stern, sleeker length-to-beam ratio (when compared to bulkier carracks), and more effective hull shape for carrying artillery.
However, this seemingly ambitious phase of shipbuilding was only transitory – since the Spanish crown decided to ‘refocus’ on the commercial potential of the galleon. Furthermore, the very same period might have corresponded to a crisis in the shipbuilding sector, especially in northern Spain. Also, the 1588 campaign was a shock defeat for the Spanish Armada, and the result may have ushered in changes in the Spanish navy.
So by the 1590s, till the mid-17th century, the galleons tended to be even more trimmed, with their capacities averaging around 500 toneladas. King Philip III (who reigned from 1598-1621 AD) aimed to directly control the coin (specie) shipments from the Americas to Spain by stipulating how the cargo should only be transported via his royal galleons.
Essentially, this translated to a Spanish crown’s near monopoly on the transatlantic trade route that not only covered coins and ingots of silver and gold but also a wealth of other valuable items like emeralds and pearls. Consequently, many of these treasure-carrying Royal Galleons were designed to be smaller and less-armed than their continental cousins. The reduction in their war-capability possibly also reflects how the Spaniards faced little to no opposition on their maritime trade routes, especially during the period between the 1590s till 1620s.
4) The Shipbuilding of Galleons –
The very scope of shipbuilding in Europe witnessed a shift in paradigm after the 1580s. Whereas earlier patterns entailed the experienced (but still personal) judgment of the generational shipbuilders, late 16th and early 17th centuries brought forth the ideals of mathematical precision and measurements that dictated the flow of work and design elements of maritime vessels. In essence, sea crafts were built for specific purposes and their individual designs and schemas reflected such a function-based direction.
Coming to the shipbuilding of Spanish galleons, like other European nations, Spain also made practical changes to the operational ambit of the industry. In that regard, while earlier galleons and other warships were the products of ill-conceived ‘agreements’ that forced shipbuilders to work within the confines of royal shipyards, by the early 17th century, the crown offered incentives to private contractors and financiers to build their warships from the ground up. Such arrangements were complemented by strict regulations that dictated the specified construction and adjustment of almost every section of the ship.
The primary shipyards in 16th century Spain pertained to the Basque coast of northern Spain and southern Andalusian coast, while (oddly enough) the eastern Mediterranean coastline was largely left out of the galleon-building industry. By the latter part of the century, Spain could also call upon Portuguese shipyards and foreign ports in Italy, Sicily, and Flanders to provide resources for their shipbuilding endeavors.
By the 17th century, Havana became the center of galleon-building in the Americas due to its proximity to high-quality Cuban timber. And in mainland Spain, Bilbao and its surrounding regions became the most important center for shipbuilding, not only because of access to good-quality timber but also because the nearby Basque area iron-industries furnished the artillery needed for the galleons.
Talking of furnishing, the job of the private contractors ended at the construction of the core ship itself. So after the delivery of the galleon, it was the responsibility of the crown to outfit the vessel with various components and armaments, ranging from navigational instruments, ordinance, ship boats to even the decoration of the craft (usually comprising religiously-inspired figures).
5) The Influence of Castles –
According to historian Angus Konstam, the various sections of the galleon decks were named after castle elements. For example, the multi-tiered sterncastle behind the mainmast (or mizzenmast) was often referred to as the alcazar (fortress), while the entire space was also called the tolda (awning). Similarly, the smaller forecastle (upper deck forward of the foremast) was simply called the castillo (castle).
Now judging by this nomenclature, it becomes somewhat evident that the Spanish viewed their galleon ships as naval extensions of actual fortresses on lands. Thus the bulky nature of the sterncastle or alcazar, while sometimes having a detrimental effect on the maneuvering of the ship itself, also symbolized the imposing stature of the galleon.
In essence, the galleons, especially the larger specimens, were perceived as floating fortresses (albeit with finer design considerations when compared to carracks) that could accommodate its fair share of defenders – in the form of well-trained musketeers who could perform boarding actions. Thus in the initial phases of galleon development during the 16th century, the onboard artillery only took a secondary role, while boarding actions were still given preference by the Spanish commanders.
6) The Armament of Galleons –
As we mentioned before in the article, the placement and fixing of armaments atop naval crafts were the responsibilities of the Spanish royal authorities, and, this, in turn, resulted in the valid documentation of the types of weapon systems, artillery, and ordnance used by the galleon. Incredibly enough, the guns, along with the powder and shot, were mostly manufactured by royal foundries and workshops (while in some cases, guns were also imported from abroad) – and as such, the Spanish relied on an ‘economical’ system where guns were specifically furnished for the galleon-type with allocated ammunition that had to be returned to the royal authorities if left unused.
As for the guns themselves, according to Angus Konstam, there were several varieties, including the larger canones (cannon), culebrinas (culverins), pedreros (stone-shotted guns), bombardettas (wrought-iron guns), and versos (swivel guns). Among these, the pedreros – used as close-range anti-personnel weapons, and bombardettas – with their lower ranges when compared to bronze guns, were increasingly considered as outdated by the 17th century. On the other hand, the versos, with their swivel-mount and faster breech-loading mechanisms, were effective and flexible for both solid-shot and grapeshot.
Suffice it to say, the canones and culebrinas (subdivided into various weights and sizes) were the mainstays of the Spanish galleon; and the capacity of the vessel itself often mirrored the number of guns on board. For example, in the Spanish Armada, the 700-850 toneladas galleons carried around 30-40 guns (divided between canones, culebrinas, and other smaller guns), while the largest 1,000-toneladas ones carried 50 guns. Similarly, the smaller 500-toneladas varieties carried 24 guns, while the even tinier 300-toneladas galleons carried around 20 guns. In terms of placements, the largest guns were carried as stern chasers, while the others, divided between the two broadsides, were arranged along a long gundeck.
7) The Flota and Purpose of the Galleon –
Spain’s exploits in the Americas converted to massive economic dividends. Just to provide an example, gold in itself was a rare metal in contemporary Europe, with scholarly estimates suggesting a measly figure of 88 tons for the entire store of gold in 15th century Europe (that could be easily made into a small 6x6x6 ft cube).
By circa 1560 AD, Spain alone accounted for 99 tons of gold shipped from the New World. However, the transatlantic routes also brought forth their fair share of logistical challenges – with the primary one pertaining to how early 16th-century Spanish merchant ships had to operate on their own in those dangerous voyages. By 1520s, a solution was hatched in the form of the averia – a special tax levied on goods traded across the Atlantic, and the money, in turn, was used to fund the crafting of warships that were to escort the merchant vessels.
In 1526 AD, the Spanish crown decided upon the flota system that basically entailed convoys of vessels guarded by the armed escort ships. And while during the early half of the 16th century, such escorting duties were carried out by naos, the further increase in averia (due to risks of foreign attack on the flotas), along with the advent of more evolved shipbuilding techniques, allowed the galleons to take center stage in such Spanish flotas. In essence, the first true galleons of the Spanish fleet were possibly built as dedicated escort ships for the merchant vessels.
Such escorting galleons, called the Armada de la Guardia, were part of the Armada del Mar Oceano (Atlantic Fleet) from the 1580s, and the latter organization ultimately morphed into a permanent navy in the 17th century. To that end, it should be noted that the Spanish Armada consisted of different kinds of vessels and warships, ranging from the naos, galleasses to smaller crafts.
By 1588 AD, there were only around 20 galleons among over 120 ships of the Armada – but they formed the offensive ‘spearhead’ of the much-vaunted fleet. Over time, their versatility also translated into a commercial advantage, with the some of the galleons being converted into armed coin-carrying ships of the Spanish crown – as mentioned earlier in the article (see the Royal Galleon entry).
8) The Crew Capacity of Galleons –
In 16th century Spanish circles, the basic rule prescribed by shipbuilders and the administration entailed how each ship should carry one person per tonelada of its weight. However, in practice, the ratio was far more skewed in favor of the cargo (rather than the crew) with figures of one person (gente de mar or mariner) per 5.5 toneladas, since the 1550s, and one person per 6.25 toneladas since the 1630s. Simply put, most of the ships, including the galleon varieties, were undermanned during their cargo-carrying voyages across the Atlantic.
But such ratios were only devised for the mariners (or crew members) of the vessel. Added to the crew number were the other men on board, including the soldiers (who were often carried in ratios of one soldier per four toneladas in the 1630s), officers, and assorted passengers. To that end, records of the Spanish navy from the early 17th century show that each galleon had an average of 90 to 100 crew members, excluding the soldiers.
If we go by the aforementioned ratio-based formula, the very same vessel would have additionally carried around 120-125 soldiers onboard. Furthermore, in times of war, the number of soldiers could actually be increased – thus transforming the galleon into a well-armed transport ship instead of a royal-sanctioned commercial vessel.
9) The Life Onboard the Galleon –
Now while from the mathematical perspective, many of the galleons were possibly undermanned in regards to their weight, the available space for crew members onboard had always been cramped. To provide an example, a 450 toneladas galleon built in 1628 had a paltry average of just 15 sq ft per person on the ship. And this space was rather reduced for the rank-and-file mariner, especially with the captain and his officers occupying the relatively ‘comfortable’ quarters of the upper deck.
Suffice it to say, such cramped conditions spelled complications when it came to the sanitation of the galleon. For most ships of the era, much of the wastewater, sea-water, and human excrement were collected in the bilge area of the vessel – which corresponded to the space below the hold. Described as ‘steaming like hell and stinking like the devil’ by one Spanish passenger in 1573 AD, the sullied water and the residues even had the tendency to attract rats – one of the major health risks inside ships during the period.
The predicament was even exacerbated by the rats polluting the clean food and water sources and even damaging the sails. Added to this revolting scope was the danger of other vermin, including cockroaches, fleas, and lice. Consequently, the galleons were breeding grounds for various diseases, including yellow fever (and its high mortality rate) exported from the Caribbean.
On the slightly brighter side, especially in Spanish circumstances, their predominantly Mediterranean diet did guard against the onset of scurvy, which was called the ‘Dutch Disease’. Moreover, proper rationing onboard was a common practice in galleons, with most sailors given their daily share of the ship biscuit made of wheat, menestra – a hearty stew of chickpeas, rice, lentils, and broad beans, and rough red wine. This was complemented by meat (or cheese on occasions), onions, garlic, olives, and vinegar.
10) The Evolution of the Galleon into a True Warship –
Historian Angus Konstam noted how in the 16th century, the Spanish followed the naval doctrine of ship artillery being used as supporting weapons. In essence, the Spaniards tended to give precedence to boarding actions over artillery duels, possibly because their axiom revolved around their well-trained infantry who could perform better in melee scenarios. To that end, the early galleons, while refined in their design, tended to serve as armed platforms that could provide supporting fire and resultant smoke – the latter being used for the masked maneuvers while boarding enemy ships.
However, in 1588 AD, the Spanish Armada suffered its shock defeat at the hands of the English navy and the unprecedented result pretty much underlined the tactical downside of the Spanish boarding actions. In fact, during the campaign of 1588, the English commanders preferred to engage in artillery duels, thereby not allowing the Spanish galleons and other warships to come in close range. Thus in the following decades, the galleon design and armaments went through numerous changes that rather propelled its status as a dedicated warship rather than an armed carrier.
One of the primary design changes focused on smaller yet more maneuverable galleon types – some of which were also tasked with carrying coins from the Americas. As for the guns on board, many of the older wrought iron specimens were already replaced by bronze ordnance by 1588 AD. But after the momentous defeat of the Armada, there was an overhaul of the management of the galleon guns. For starters, the experienced sailors, as opposed to the soldiers, were given the responsibility of operating the artillery.
The scope was made more efficient with the correct labeling and storage of the different shots for the various caliber of the guns – which allowed for a streamlined approach during the high-intensity artillery duels. The guns were also supported by larger four-wheeled carriages instead of the feeble two-wheel ones. Furthermore, boarding actions were still perceived as effective tactics, but the boarding parties were organized and prepared in accordance with their expertise (ranging from melee situations, throwing grenades and incendiaries, to extinguishing fires).
Such alterations rather reflected on many of the naval battles and encounters till the late 1630s – with the Spanish galleons showcasing their mettle (often buoyed by resourceful commanders) in numerous engagements both in the Americas and European waters. The Golden Age of the Spanish galleon culminated at the Battle of the Downs in 1639, where the warships, although heavily battered, held their own against a larger Dutch fleet.
Conclusion – The Decline
Unfortunately, in spite of the many modifications (both structural and organizational) made on the Spanish galleon, naval warfare in the decades of the mid 17th century changed significantly in terms of formations and maneuvers. To that end, in the following years, one of the widespread tactics adopted by many contemporary European navies related to the ‘line of the battle’ – basically entailing the formation of a line by the ships end to end, which allowed them to collectively fire their cannon volleys from the broadsides without any danger of friendly-fire.
The adoption of such tactics translated to ships being used as floating artillery platforms, thereby resulting in the design of heavier vessels with more number of guns – better known as the ‘ship of the line’. Suffice it to say, the sleeker galleon was ironically anachronistic, with the focus of shipbuilders once again shifting to the bigger warships with broadside artillery platforms. Consequently, the last galleons of the Spanish navy were decommissioned by the late 17th century.
Featured Image Source: Painting by Roland Davies (1stDibs)
Book Reference: Spanish Galleon 1530-1690 (By Angus Konstam)
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